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Water

Korea's Recent Environmental Laws, Reports, and Press Releases based on KEI Research

Framework Act on Water Management
  • Date2022-06-08 14:06
  • TypeLaw
  • View245

Amended by Act No. 15653, jun. 12, 2018

 



CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

Article 1 (Purpose) 

The purpose of this Act is to establish a sustainable water cycle system and contribute to improving the quality of life of citizens through securing of water in a stable manner; conservation and management of the water environment; and prevention of disasters caused by droughts, floods, etc., by presenting the basic ideology for water management and basic directions for water management policies and by prescribing basic matters necessary for water management.

 

Article 2 (Basic Ideology) 

The basic ideology is to make all people, animals, plants, and other living organisms use water reasonably as public resource obtained through the water cycle system of the earth; to maximize the utility of water in water management without erroneous or reckless use of water; and to sustainably use and conserve water while achieving a balance between the natural environment and social and economic life, so as to maintain the value of water into the future.

 

Article 3 (Definitions) 

The terms used in this Act shall be defined as follows:

1. The term "water cycle" means a continued circulation of water through which precipitation becomes surface water and underground water and flows into rivers, lakes, swamps, seas, etc.; or the process by which the water stored evaporates to become precipitation again;

2. The term "water management" means activities by all people and living organisms to conserve and economically use water as a component of the natural environment and as a necessary element of and resource for social and economic activities; and to reduce or prevent disasters caused by droughts or floods;

3. The term "water resources" means water as a resource that can be used to maintain human life, economic activities, the natural environment, etc.;

4. The term "basin" means a particular area where rivers, etc. merge, which is bordered by a watershed.

 

Article 4 (Rights to Use Water and Duties)

(1) Everyone has the right to use water supplied in a stable manner, the quality of which suits the purpose of use; to be safely protected from disasters, such as droughts and floods; and to enjoy life in a healthy and pleasant water environment.

(2) Everyone shall endeavor to establish a sustainable water cycle system and cooperate with the State and local governments regarding their water management policies.

 

Article 5 (Responsibilities of State and Local Governments)

(1) The State shall have the responsibility to establish a sustainable water management system in accordance with the basic ideology for water management and to formulate and implement a comprehensive plan necessary for improving the quality of life of citizens.

(2) Local governments shall have the responsibility to formulate a plan appropriate for national water management policies as well as for the regional characteristics of their jurisdictions.

 

Article 6 (Responsibilities of Business Entities) 

(1) Business entities shall use water properly in the entire course of business activities and shall endeavor not to adversely affect the healthy water environment and the normal water cycle.

(2) Business entities shall actively participate and cooperate in water management policies implemented by the State or local governments.

 

Article 7 (Relationship to Other Acts)

(1) Other Acts relating to water management shall be enacted or amended in compliance with this Act.

(2) Except as otherwise expressly provided for in other Acts, this Act shall apply to water management.



CHAPTER II BASIC PRINCIPLES OF WATER MANAGEMENT

 

Article 8 (Public Nature of Water)

Water shall be used to the extent that the public interests are not infringed, national water management policies are not impeded, and impacts on the water environment are minimized.

 

Article 9 (Sound Water Cycle)

The State and local governments shall ensure that water can continuously perform its normal functions to maintain the ecosystem and human activities, considering that water sustains life on earth while being cycled and plays an important role for people's life and industrial activities.

 

Article 10 (Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems) 

In formulating and executing water management policies, the State and local governments shall endeavor to conserve sustainable aquatic ecosystems in consideration of the function and value of water as habitats of life, by taking measures, such as improving or restoring aquatic ecosystems if the health of aquatic ecosystem is deteriorated.

 

Article 11 (Management by Basin) 

Water shall be managed on a basin basis to promote its sustainable development, utilization, and conservation and to prevent disasters caused by droughts, floods, etc., but water management among basins shall be promoted in a harmonized and balanced manner.

 

Article 12 (Integrated Water Management)

(1) The State and local governments shall manage water to ensure that all forms of water in the water cycle process, such as surface water and underground water, are balanced with each other.

(2) In formulating and implementing water-related policies, the State and local governments shall take account of the whole water cycle.

(3) In managing water, the State and local governments shall comprehensively consider the securing of water quantities; preservation of the water quality; prevention of disasters caused by droughts, floods, etc.; the natural environment including climate, land, resources, environment, and vegetation; and effects on the economy, society, etc.

 

Article 13 (Cooperation and Coordinated Management) 

In implementing water management policies, the State and local governments shall consider the entire basin in question, and shall promote coordination between basins and between regions by ensuring that any changes in water management conditions of a region do not adversely affect the sound water cycle of other regions.

 

Article 14 (Distribution of Water)

The State and local governments shall distribute water reasonably and equitably so that people can enjoy benefits of water evenly; in such cases, the State and local governments shall also consider the distribution of water for the purpose of ensuring healthy ecosystems, including plants and animals.

 

Article 15 (Management, etc. of Water Demand)

(1) To formulate a plan to develop and supply water resources, the State and local governments shall consider the need to adequately manage water demand by making endeavors to save water and reduce water losses before formulating the plan.

(2) To prepare for water resource shortages or for disasters caused by droughts or floods, the State and local governments shall develop alternative water resources by managing and utilizing precipitation, reusing sewage water, desalinating salt water, or by taking other measures; and shall actively promote technology development to prevent disasters.

 

Article 16 (Permission, etc. to Use Water)

A person who intends to use water shall obtain permission, etc. pursuant to relevant statutes.

 

Article 17 (Cost Bearing) 

(1) A water user shall be required to fully or partially bear the cost of managing water: Provided, That this shall not apply to any special circumstances determined by this Act or other Acts.

(2) Any person who causes hindrance to water management shall be required to fully or partially bear the cost of managing water, such as preventing or restoring the obstacle.

(3) Relevant statutes shall apply to cost-bearing, management, etc. provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2), and the funds received to cover the cost shall be used for water management.

 

Article 18 (Response to Climate Change) 

The State and local governments shall minimize the vulnerabilities of water management caused by climate change and prepare water management measures to actively respond to climate change through restoration, etc. of the water cycle.

 

Article 19 (Participation in Water Management Policies)

Decisions on water management policies shall be made through broad participation by interested parties, such as public officials of the State and local governments, water users, local residents, and relevant experts, as well as through consensus among such interested parties.



CHAPTER III WATER MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE

 

Article 20 (Establishment, etc. of National Water Management Committee and Basin Water Management Committees)

(1) The National Water Management Committee shall be established under the jurisdiction of the President, and basin water management committees by basin shall be established in the National Water Management Committee to deliberate and decide on important matters concerning water management.

(2) The names and locations of basin water management committees as well as their jurisdictions shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.

 

Article 21 (Composition, etc. of National Water Management Committee) 

(1) The National Water Management Committee shall be comprised of not less than 30 but not more than 50 members, including two chairpersons.

(2) The Prime Minister and a person appointed by the President from among persons specified in paragraph (3) 3 (a) or (b), shall serve as the chairpersons of the National Water Management Committee.

(3) Any of the following persons are qualified to be a member of the National Water Management Committee. In such cases, a majority of the total number of members of the Committee shall be comprised of persons other than public officials:

1. The Minister of Strategy and Finance, the Minister of the Interior and Safety, the Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, the Minister of Trade, Industry and Energy, the Minister of Environment, the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the Minister of Oceans and Fisheries, the Minister of the Office for Government Policy Coordination, the chairpersons of each basin water management committee, and any other public official prescribed by Presidential Decree;

2. The head of a public institution specified in the Act on the Management of Public Institutions which is prescribed by Presidential Decree;

3. A person commissioned by the President from among the following persons:

(a) A person who held an associate professorship or higher position, or other equivalent position in the field of water management at a university or authorized research institute for at least ten years;

(b) A person who worked for any water-related organization or institution for at least ten years;

(c) A person who served as a judge, prosecutor, or lawyer for at least ten years;

(d) Any other person who is well respected in society with profound knowledge about and experience in the field of water management.

(4) Where both of the Chairpersons are unable to perform their duties due to extenuating circumstances, a person designated in advance by the Chairperson who is the Prime Minister shall act on their behalf.

(5) Except as otherwise expressly provided for in this Act, matters necessary for the composition, etc. of the National Water Management Committee shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.

 

Article 22 (Functions of National Water Management Committee) 

The National Water Management Committee shall deliberate and decide on the following:

1. Formulating and amending a master plan for national water management under Article 27;

2. Whether a comprehensive basin water management plan complies with the relevant master plan for national water management under Article 29;

3. Designating the scope of basins by water system;

4. Water movement among basins for appropriate water distribution;

5. Whether water management-related plans submitted by related central administrative agencies comply with the relevant master plan for national water management;

6. Mediation of any of the following water disputes under Article 21:

(a) A water dispute to which a central administrative agency or metropolitan government is a party;

(b) A water dispute over at least two basins;

(c) Any other water dispute prescribed by Presidential Decree;

7. Evaluating the implementation of master plans for national water management as well as overall water management;

8. Matters brought to the National Water Management Committee by the Chairpersons, regarding water management;

9. Any other matters on which the National Water Management Committee deliberates and decides pursuant to this Act or other Acts.

 

Article 23 (Composition of Basin Water Management Committees)

(1) A basin water management committee shall be comprised of not less than 30 but not more than 50 members, including two chairpersons.

(2) The Minister of Environment and a person appointed by the President from among persons specified in paragraph (3) 3 (a) or (b) upon joint recommendation of the Chairpersons of the National Water Management Committee shall serve as the chairpersons of a basin water management committee.

(3) Any of the following persons are qualified to be a member of a basin water management committee. In such cases, a majority of the total number of members of the committee shall be comprised of persons other than public officials:

1. The Mayor/Do Governor having jurisdiction over the relevant basin and a public official prescribed by Presidential Decree who has experience in water management;

2. One executive officer or employee recommended by the head of each public institution specified in the Act on the Management of Public Institutions which is prescribed by Presidential Decree;

3. A person commissioned jointly by the Chairpersons of the National Water Management Committee upon recommendation of the Mayor/Do Governor having jurisdiction over the relevant basin, from among the following persons:

(a) A person who held an associate professorship or higher position, or other equivalent position in the field of water management at a university or authorized research institute for at least ten years;

(b) A person who worked for any water-related organization or institution for at least ten years;

(c) A person who served as a judge, prosecutor, or lawyer for at least ten years;

(d) A local resident of the relevant basin, who is well respected in society with profound experience in the field of water management.

(4) Where both of the chairpersons are unable to perform their duties due to unavoidable reasons, a person designated in advance by the chairperson who is the Minister of Environment shall act on their behalf.

(5) Except as otherwise expressly provided for in this Act, matters necessary for the composition, etc. of basin water management committees shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.

 

Article 24 (Functions of Basin Water Management Committees)

Each basin water management committee shall deliberate and decide on the following:

1. Formulating and amending a comprehensive basin water management plan under Article 28;

2. Whether a water-related plan within the basin submitted by the head of a local government pursuant to Article 30 complies with the relevant basin plan;

3. Water movement within the relevant basin for appropriate water distribution;

4. Mediation of water disputes arising within the relevant basin under Article 32 (excluding matters specified in subparagraph 6 of Article 22);

5. Matters brought to the basin water management committee by the chairpersons, regarding water management within the relevant basin;

6. Any other matters on which the basin water management committee deliberates and decides pursuant to this Act or other Acts.

 

Article 25 (Term of Office, etc. of Members)

(1) The term of office of each member specified in Article 21 (3) 3 or 23 (3) 3, among the members of the National Water Management Committee and each basin water management committee (hereinafter referred to as the "Water Management Committees"), shall be three years but may be renewed only once.

(2) Each Water Management Committee shall have one secretary, who shall be designated by the Chairpersons through consultation, from among persons specified in Article 21 (3) 3 or Article 23 (3) 3.

 

Article 26 (Meetings, etc. of Water Management Committees)

(1) A Chairperson of each Water Management Committee shall convene and preside over the meetings of the Committee.

(2) Meetings of each Water Management Committee shall be classified into regular meetings and extraordinary meetings, and the extraordinary meetings shall be convened by the Chairpersons if deemed necessary by the Chairpersons or if requested by at least 1/4 of all incumbent members.

(3) Meetings of each Committee shall commence with the attendance of a majority of all incumbent members, and resolutions shall be adopted with the consent of a majority of the members present: Provided, That in cases prescribed by Presidential Decree, the Committee may pass deliberations and resolutions in writing.

(4) Subcommittees may be established in each Water Management Committee to efficiently operate the Committee.

(5) A secretariat shall be established in the National Water Management Committee.

(6) The operation of the Water Management Committees, composition and operation of subcommittees, organization of the secretariat, and other necessary matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.



CHAPTER IV MASTER PLANS FOR NATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT, ETC.

 

Article 27 (Formulation, etc. of Master Plans for National Water Management)

(1) The Minister of Environment shall formulate, every ten years, a master plan for national water management (hereinafter referred to as "national plan"), including the following matters, through consultation with the heads of related central administrative agencies and the chairpersons of the basin water management committees and deliberation by the National Water Management Committee:

1. Basic objectives of and direction-setting for national water management policies;

2. Assessment of performance of national water management policies as well as changes in and prospects for water management conditions;

3. Preserving, managing, and restoring the water environments;

4. Supplying, utilizing, and distributing water; developing and preserving water resources; and providing prospects for medium and long-term supply and demand;

5. Reducing and preventing disasters caused by droughts, floods, etc.;

6. Measures to respond to the vulnerabilities of water management to climate change;

7. Principles and criteria for reasonable cost-sharing concerning mediation of water disputes and use of water resources;

8. Direction-setting for medium and long-term investment of water management budgets;

9. Nurturing the water industry and enhancing its competitiveness;

10. Basic policy for comprehensive basin water management plans;

11. Any other matters prescribed by Presidential Decree for sustainable water management.

(2) The Minister of Environment shall review the appropriateness of a national plan every five years from the date the plan is formulated and amend the plan based on the results of the review. In such cases, the Minister shall submit the plan to the National Water Management Committee for deliberation.

(3) The heads of related central administrative agencies shall formulate or amend a water management-related plan prescribed by Presidential Decree in compliance with the relevant national plan, and where the heads of related central administrative agencies intend to formulate or amend a water management-related plan, they shall submit the plan to the National Water Management Committee for deliberation concerning whether the plan complies with the national plan: Provided, That the National Water Management Committee may have the relevant basin water management committee deliberate on matters relating to a basin, among matters in the water management-related plan formulated by the heads of related central administrative agencies.

(4) The National Water Management Committee shall deliberate on whether water management-related plans formulated by the heads of related central administrative agencies comply with the relevant national plan and may request them to adjust the plans if necessary. In such cases, the heads of related central administrative agencies so requested shall comply with the request, in the absence of special circumstances.

(5) Procedures, etc. for formulating national plans pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.

 

Article 28 (Formulation of Comprehensive Basin Water Management Plans)

(1) The chairpersons of the basin water management committees shall formulate, every ten years, a comprehensive basin water management plan (hereinafter referred to as "basin plan"), including the following matters, based on the relevant national plan formulated pursuant to Article 27 (1), through consultation with the heads of related central administrative agencies and the heads of local governments and deliberation by the National Water Management Committee and the basin water management committees:

1. Changes in and prospects for the water-related conditions of the basins;

2. Developing, conserving, and diversifying basin water resources as well as supplying, utilizing, and distributing water;

3. Reducing and preventing disasters caused by droughts, floods, etc. in the basins;

4. Preserving, managing, and restoring the water environments of the basins;

5. Measures to respond to the vulnerabilities of basin water management to climate change;

6. Estimates of the cost of basin water management as well as measures to raise funds;

7. Participation by interested parties, including local residents, as well as promotion of water culture;

8. Any other matters prescribed by Presidential Decree for sustainable water management for the basins.

(2) The chairpersons of the basin water management committees shall review the appropriateness of a basin plan every five years from the date the plan is formulated and reflect the results of the review in the basin plan.

(3) Procedures, etc. for formulating basin plans pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.

 

Article 29 (Deliberation and Adjustment of Basin Plans)

(1) The National Water Management Committee shall deliberate on whether basin plans submitted by the chairpersons of the basin water management committees comply with the relevant national plan and may request them to adjust the plans if necessary.

(2) Upon receipt of a request to adjust basin plans under paragraph (1), the chairpersons of the relevant basin water management committees shall comply with such request, in the absence of special circumstances.

 

Article 30 (Application of Basin Plans)

(1) The heads of local governments shall formulate or amend a water management-related plan prescribed by Presidential Decree in compliance with the relevant basin plan, and where the heads of local governments intend to formulate or amend a water management-related plan, they shall submit the plan to the relevant basin water management committee for deliberation concerning whether the plan complies with the basin plan.

(2) A basin water management committee shall deliberate on whether water management-related plans submitted by the heads of local governments comply with the relevant basin plan and may request the heads of local governments to adjust the plans if necessary. In such cases, the heads of the local governments so requested shall comply with the request, in the absence of special circumstances.

(3) Where a basin water management committee deliberates on the water management-related plans formulated by the heads of related central administrative agencies under the proviso to Article 27 (3) and deems that such plans fail to comply with the relevant basin plans, the committee may request the heads of related central administrative agencies to adjust the plans. In such cases, the heads of related central administrative agencies so requested shall comply with the request, in the absence of special circumstances.

 

Article 31 (Holding of Public Hearing)

(1) To formulate or amend a national plan or basin plan, the Chairpersons of the Water Management Committees shall hold a prior public hearing to hear opinions of the general public, local residents, relevant experts, etc. and shall reflect opinions presented in the public hearing in the national plan or basin plan if such opinions are deemed reasonable: Provided, That where any change is made to insignificant matters prescribed by Presidential Decree, a public hearing may be omitted.

(2) Matters necessary for holding a public hearing, etc. under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.



CHAPTER V MEDIATION, ETC. OF WATER DISPUTES

 

Article 32 (Mediation of Water Disputes)

(1) Where a dispute (hereinafter referred to as "water dispute") arises due to differences in opinions on development, utilization, management, etc. of water resources, any interested party (hereinafter referred to as "party") may file an application with the relevant Water Management Committee for mediation of the water dispute, as prescribed by Presidential Decree, notwithstanding the provisions of other Acts.

(2) In applying for mediation of a water dispute, a party shall file an application with the National Water Management Committee if the dispute relates to matters specified in subparagraph 6 of Article 22 and with the relevant basin water management committee if the dispute relates to matters specified in subparagraph 4 of Article 24.

(3) Even if no application is filed by a party, the Water Management Committees may commence mediation procedures ex officio if a water dispute causes a serious damage to the public interests, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.

(4) Upon receipt of an application for mediation under paragraph (1), the relevant Water Management Committee shall notify the other party of the details of the application without delay.

(5) To mediate a water dispute pursuant to paragraph (3), the relevant Water Management Committee shall notify the parties of the purport of the mediation in advance.

(6) Where a Water Management Committee deems that it is inappropriate to mediate a water dispute in view of its nature or that an application for mediation is filed for an unfair purpose, the Committee may not mediate the water dispute. In such cases, the reason, etc. for not mediating the dispute shall be notified to the parties.

(7) Upon receipt of an application for mediation of a water dispute under paragraph (1) or upon commencement of mediation procedures ex officio under paragraph (3), the relevant Water Management Committee may present the details of the water dispute to the parties, and recommend them to reach an agreement prior to the mediation.

 

Article 33 (Processing of Mediation)

(1) The relevant Water Management Committee shall deliberate on the water dispute case and devise a mediation plan within 90 days after receipt of an application for mediation under Article 32 (1) (referring to the date the parties are notified of the purport of the mediation, in cases of Article 32 (5)) and shall present the mediation plan to the parties without delay: Provided, That in unavoidable circumstances, the period may be extended by up to 60 days by a resolution of the Water Management Committee, and the reason for an extension, if given, shall be notified to the parties.

(2) Where any of the parties files a lawsuit, the Water Management Committee shall suspend the dispute mediation and notify the parties thereof.

(3) The parties in receipt of a mediation plan under paragraph (1) shall notify the relevant Water Management Committee of whether they accept the plan within 30 days after the receipt thereof. In such cases, the parties shall be deemed to have accepted the mediation plan if they fail to express their intentions within 30 days.

(4) If the parties accept a mediation plan, the Water Management Committee shall immediately prepare a mediation report, and the Chairpersons of the Water Management Committee and each of the parties shall affix their names or their signatures and seals to the mediation report: Provided, That where the parties are deemed to have accepted the mediation plan under the latter part of paragraph (3), each of the parties may not affix his/her name or his/her signature and seal to the report.

(5) The method and procedures for mediating water disputes; handling of mediation affairs; disqualification of, challenge to, and refrainment by mediation members; and other necessary matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.

 

Article 34 (Request, etc. for Data)

(1) Upon receipt of an application for mediation under Article 32 (1) or upon commencement of mediation procedures ex officio under Article 32 (3), the relevant Water Management Committee may request the parties to submit data necessary for mediating a water dispute. In such cases, the parties shall comply with such request, in the absence of special circumstances.

(2) Where deemed necessary, the relevant Water Management Committee may have any party or reference witness attend a meeting of the Committee to hear his/her opinion.

(3) Where deemed necessary to mediate a water dispute, the relevant Water Management Committee may request the heads of related central administrative agencies to submit data or their opinions or to provide technical knowledge. In such cases, the heads of related central administrative agencies so requested shall comply with such request, in the absence of special circumstances.



CHAPTER VI FOSTERING OF WATER CULTURE, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, ETC.

 

Article 35 (Fostering, etc. of Water Culture)

(1) The State and local governments shall seek necessary measures, such as implementing, distributing, and developing school education and social education, so as to foster water culture through enhancing public understanding of water, such as the water cycle and water management, and through disseminating knowledge thereabout.

(2) To increase interest in water in Korea and abroad, the State and local governments may implement relevant projects appropriate for Water Day, Water Week, or the purport thereof or may support activities of relevant organizations, etc.

 

Article 36 (Promotion of International Cooperation on Water Management)

To efficiently manage water, the State and local governments shall formulate and implement policies to promote technology cooperation, exchange of information, joint surveys or research, etc. with foreign countries, international bodies, etc.

 

Article 37 (Inter-Korean Cooperation on Water Management)

Recognizing that water shared by South Korea and North Korea is an asset common to the Korean people, the State and local governments shall endeavor to promote mutual exchanges and cooperation in the field of water management, including joint management of public waters in the two Koreas.

 

Article 38 (Water Management Agreement)

(1) A water management agreement aimed at utilizing and distributing water, conserving and managing the water environment and preventing disasters caused by droughts or floods may be concluded between a central administrative agency and a local government or between local governments which have legitimate interests in water management. In such cases, any organization of local residents, business entities, organizations, etc. related to water management may be included in the objects of the water management agreement.

(2) The method and procedures for concluding a water management agreement under paragraph (1), details of the agreement, measures for executing it, and other necessary matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.

 

Article 39 (Support, etc. for Surveys, Research, and Technology Development)

The State and local governments may implement projects necessary to support surveys, research, and technology development relating to water as well as to train water management specialists.

 

Article 40 (Promotion of Private Participation)

The State and local governments shall seek measures to promote and support water environment conservation activities as well as activities to maintain the healthy water cycle promoted voluntarily by water users and local residents or by private organizations.

 

Article 41 (Informatization, etc. of Water Management Data)

(1) The State and local governments shall endeavor to promote informatization of water management data to ensure that various data and information necessary for water management are utilized efficiently.

(2) The State and local governments shall systematically integrate and manage water management data and information and transparently provide them so that everybody can utilize such data and information efficiently.

 

Article 42 (Delegation and Entrustment of Duties)

(1) Where deemed necessary, the Minister of Environment or the chairpersons of the basin water management committees may partially delegate or entrust the duties specified in Article 27 or 28 to persons prescribed by Presidential Decree.

(2) The heads of central administrative agencies or the heads of local governments may partially delegate or entrust the duties specified in Articles 35 through 41 to persons prescribed by Presidential Decree.

 

Article 43 (Establishment of Organizations)

(1) A person who engages in water-related research or business may establish an organization to conduct or promote surveys, research, technology development, education, publicity relating to water, international cooperation in the field of water, etc., after obtaining approval therefor from the heads of related central administrative agencies, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.

(2) The organization established pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be a corporation.

(3) The articles of incorporation, operation and supervision of the organization established pursuant to paragraph (1), and other necessary matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.

(4) Except as otherwise expressly provided for in this Act, the provisions of the Civil Act governing incorporated associations shall apply mutatis mutandis to the organization established under paragraph (1).

 

Article 44 (Financial Support)

The State and local governments may fully or partially subsidize expenses incurred in conducting the relevant business for persons performing any of the following business activities:

1. Fostering water culture;

2. International cooperation on water management;

3. Surveys, research, etc. on water resources of North Korea;

4. Surveys, research, and technology development regarding water management;

5. Training water management specialists;

6. Standardization and informatization of water management data;

7. Education and publicity on water management;

8. Exporting water-related technology.

 

Article 45 (Deemed Public Officials for Purposes of Penalty Provisions) 

Members of the Water Management Committees who are not public officials shall be deemed public officials for purpose of penalty provisions of the Criminal Act or other Acts.

 



[Source: Korea Law Translation Center, https://elaw.klri.re.kr/kor_mobile/viewer.do?hseq=49166&type=sogan&key=16]