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Research Reports

Spatial-based climate change vulnerability analysis study for diagnosis of climate justice
  • Author Jung Huicheul, Kim Geunhan
  • Researchers
  • Date 2020-10-31
Ⅰ. Background and Aims of Research
1. Need and Purpose of Research
o Abnormal climate is occurring frequently around the world as signs of climate change, and it is being predicted that damages caused by abnormal climate in the future will grow far beyond expected
o Environmental, social and economic damages caused by climate change are appearing differently by region, gender, age and generation, and discussions on this are in line with the concept of environmental justice
o In order to achieve climate justice that deals with climate change issues based on the concept of environmental justice, it is necessary to evaluate why such inequalities occur, while continuously working on and monitoring efforts to resolve such inequalities
o This study aims at presenting a method to evaluate and monitor climate justice focusing on heat waves resulting from climate change for entire local governments in the cities and townships of Korea

2. Scope of Research
o This study intends to examine climate justice focusing on the perspective of distributive justice that reviews spatial inequalities and discrimination
o It aims to review and monitor the inequalities of local government unites related to heat waves to evaluate climate justice from the perspective of distributive justice

3. Research Contents and Execution System
o Analyzed domestic and foreign status on climate justice and conduct case-studies to draw up implications and present climate justice evaluation plans fitting the conditions of Korea
oAimed at presenting methodologies that evaluate climate injustice through case-studies utilizing the concept of climate justice and spatial analysis, and proposed a spatial DBMS-based service system for this
oChecked the correlation between various exposure and vulnerability-based indicators related to heat wave risk coefficients and reviewed whether there are features of spatial differences for all of Korea using global Moran’s I.
oReviewed spatial differences of the heat wave risk coefficient using global Moran’s I for each local government
oClaimed the need for policy utilization based on climate justice methodologies and analysis results of heat waves and the need for establishing a base for continuous monitoring system for each local government

Ⅱ. Preceding Studies and Theoretical Consideration
1. Climate justice
oThe logic of climate justice includes absorbing the critical mind that the risks and benefits of the environment should be evenly distributed from environmental justice, as well as the innovative element of ‘conversion to a low carbon society’
o Climate justice was triggered because the industrial benefits regarding climate change and the resulting responsibilities and damages are inconsistent
o Climate justice can be divided into the following components
ㅇ Distributive climate justice
- In regards to the issue on responsibility for climate change, emphasizes the inconsistency of the party causing climate changes and the party that incurs damages are inconsistent, and the distribution of responsibilities for climate change
ㅇ Procedural climate justice
- In regards to the procedure for establishing and reviewing climate change policies, ensure active participation instead of being formative procedures, and construct a process
ㅇ Productive climate justice
- Critical thinking on the current industrial structure that cannot help but to accelerate climate change and champion a just conversion that includes laborers in the current industrial structure in order to switch to a new industrial structure
ㅇ Recognition climate justice
- Establish climate change response strategies from an ecological perspective that is not human-centered, but recognizes and includes all types of life

2. Climate Justice and Environmental Justice Diagnostic Analysis
o Upon examining the preceding studies for domestic and foreign climate justice and environmental justice diagnosis, the results can be summarized as follows
ㅇ Analyses were selcted based on climate change risk evaluations for abnormal climates such as heat waves and floods to analyze climate justice
ㅇ Reviews were made on discrimination (inequalities) dealing with socio- economic vulnerabilities that are differentiated from other administrative districts (or regions)
ㅇ For methodologies on checking discrimination or inequalities with other local governments, analyses were conducted through correlation analysis, cluster analysis, hot-spot analysis, and numerical comparisons with nearby administrative districts
ㅇ Therefore, in order to evaluate climate injustice, local governments in which climate injustice occurs should be extracted through climate change risk evaluations and using reviews on distributive justice through fairness comparisons
ㅇ For this, review methods such as correlation analysis, Moran’s I, numerical comparisons between local governments, etc. on the evaluation factors that affect climate justice among the various types of vulnerability indicators
ㅇ Furthermore, methodological reviews are necessary to evaluate climate justice such as utilizing different types of indicators that are continuously being constructed

3. Indicators Related to Climate Justice Risk Evaluation
o Upon examining the evaluation indicators and studies on domestic and foreign climate justice risks, the results can summarized as follows
ㅇ utilize various types of evaluation indicators such as society, economy, environment, health, and infrastructure in the climate change risk evaluation
ㅇ There are 381 vulnerability indicators provided by VESTAP, but preceding studies reviewed indicators not included in this
ㅇ Therefore, it is necessary to provide methodologies or analysis systems that can also take into consideration extension of such indicators in the future
ㅇ Furthermore, as technologies related to the fourth industrial revolution are drawing attention, the importance of constructing and utilizing data has been emphasized, and it was judged that various types of data that can be utilized will be constructed, and thus, there is a need to review the climate justice evaluation system using various types of risk indicators or the continuously added vulnerability indicators


Ⅲ. Analysis for Deducing Climate Injustice
1. Analysis Methodology
o Diagnose climate justice focusing on distributive justice, and for this, carry out evaluations focusing on inequalities and discrimination among the regions to find comparatively vulnerable regions
ㅇ Perform analysis to deduce climate injustice for all cities and townships of Korea in regards to heat waves, which are a type of abnormal climate
ㅇ Use hazards of the Ministry of Environment’s heat wave adaptation risk map, exposure, and vulnerability items for analysis
ㅇ Use heat wave hazard analysis results and check correlation between the exposure and vulnerability indicators
ㅇ Find areas that are comparatively more vulnerability through the heat wave hazard analysis results and comparisons of Z-Score of exposure and vulnerability indicators
ㅇ Review spatial cluster by conducting Global Moran’s I analysis for exposure and vulnerability indicators
ㅇ Review spatial difference by conducting Local Moran’s I analysis for exposure and vulnerability indicators

o Establish analysis system using spatial DBMS
ㅇ In order to conduct climate justice analysis using data that are continuously constructed and produced, possible to save data using spatial DBMS, location-based spatial analysis, and provide quick questions, operations and analysis using attributes information
ㅇ Extract location-based attribute values of saved spatial information and link and query tables using table join to extract attribute values to collect structural data, and utilize this for various analyses

2. Analysis Results
o Deduce indicators where Global Moran’s I is high while also having high correlation in the exposure and vulnerability evaluation items of regions with high hazards related to heat waves
ㅇ Indicators related to exposure are total population and population density, and indicators related to vulnerability are urbanization area ratio and green area ratio
o Deduce indicators where Local Moran’s I is high while also having high indicators compared to other local governments in the exposure and vulnerability evaluation items among regions with high hazards related to heat waves
ㅇ Upon extracting the regions having high heat wave dangers (top 15%) and high exposure and vulnerability indicators compared to other local governments, most were regions with high population density and high urbanization, and it was judged that injustice occurred in the perspective of climate injustice in urban regions with low green area ratios

Ⅳ. Conclusion and Proposal
1. Utilization for Policies
o It is judged that for local governments having vulnerabilities, it is necessary to supplement such climate injustices in various planning stages including city planning
o Efforts will be made to procure educational budgets such as for heat wave response instructions in future climate change support plans, while seeking out ways to mitigate damages related to heat waves through continuing education as part of the efforts to minimize climate injustice
o It is necessary to construct an ongoing monitoring system to present the basis for consistently pursuing projects between different agencies

2. Future Research Projects
o It is necessary to automate these research methods using data provided by VESTAP to develop analysis tools that can review present and future climate injustices
o It is necessary to continuously research and discover various indicators not offered by VESTAP
o It is necessary to construct high-resolution data to not only include the local governments of cities and townships, but also the lowest local governments
o Climate injustice was reviewed in this study focusing on distributive justice, but in the future, efforts should be made to provide evaluations that include procedural, productive, and recognition justice