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Research Reports

A study on linking national land use planning and environmental planning to improve the environmental aspects of housing supply policy
  • Author Lee, Sangbum
  • Researchers
  • Date 2020-10-31
The purpose of this research is to suggest measures to link national land use planning and environmental planning as well as improvement measures for other relevant systems to enhance the environmental aspects of housing supply policy among housing policies promoted for housing stability, especially the planning of urban development projects for large-scale housing supply. While the urban development project promoted by the large-scale release of the Development Restriction Zones(Green belt), which has been pushed forward by the national policy for over 20 years to supply public housing in the metropolitan area, is evaluated to have achieved the intended purpose in terms of housing stability, various problems were caused, in terms of sustainable land management and environmental preservation such as environmental damage including the disconnection of the annular axis in the development-restricted area, the reduction of the endangered species habitats, and serious conurbation due to the combined developments.
Establishing housing policy based on population growth, calculations of housing demand, etc., is the unique authority of the relevant government departments in charge of establishing the policy, and this is not within the scope of this study. However, since determining areas to remove from the Development Restriction Zones and the scale of the removal is closely related to the environment in terms of the conservation of the local environment and sustainable land management, it is necessary to take environmental impact into account by linking land use planning and environmental planning. In particular, there is a problem that the importance of open space, including agricultural land, is not properly considered because the current standards on the removal of the Development Restriction Zones focus on forest conservation.
In overseas cases examined in this study including the United States and Germany, policies for the conservation of open space are being promoted through the strong implementation of the system at the government level. In Korea as well, there is a need to adopt policies for the conservation of open areas in the aspect of preserving ecological habitats and landscape diversity in areas around large cities in Korea. In addition, in the case of the London City, a pioneer in establishing the Development Restriction Zones, a policy for the sustainable management of the Development Restriction Zones is being introduced as development pressure in hese zones increases.
In this study, targeting the projects of the Nest(Bogeumjari) Housing, Enterprise-type Rental Housing, and Public Housing District, which have been promoted by the national policy for the past 10 years, problems in the aspect of the environment which occurred in the planning stage such as the site selection and land use planning of independent development projects were analyzed and presented based on the opinions stated in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review by the Korea Environmental Institute, and case analyses on some of those projects were conducted together.
As these large-scale public housing development projects proceeded in the order of Nest(Bogeumjari) Housing, Enterprise-type Rental Housing, and the Public Housing District development, it was confirmed that the review opinions were mainly focused on the measures to reduce environmental impacts at the beginning; however, the opinions pointing out the problems inherent in the project, such as the appropriateness of the plan, project site, and land use plans increased with the promotion of the national housing policy. In particular, the problems caused by the planning of combined developments of the Nest (Bogeumjari) Housing, the Enterprise-type Rental Housing, and the Public Housing District were becoming serious. Increasing problems related to the planning and district selection of large-scale urban development projects for supplying public housing show that public housing districts are being planned in environmentally sensitive areas as areas that can be released from the Development Restriction Zones that are not environmentally sensitive are exhausted; at the same time, this also indicates that from this point onwards, maintaining the large-scale public housing policy by releasing the Development Restriction Zones which allows easy development as in the past will be difficult.
Unlike the policy to supply public housing by releasing the Development Restriction Zones in the capital area, the problem in non-capital areas was that the plans for supplying public housing were not based on local supply and demand. It has been found that housing policies which do not take regional circumstances into account are being developed; for example, public housing districts are not planned out in regions such as the Pohang City where the private-initiated urban development projects for housing are actively promoted, or, they are planned in areas where no such development projects have been promoted in the past.
In this study, based on the case analyses in the order of the Nest(Bogeumjari) Housing, Enterprise-type Rental Housing, and Public Housing District, we analyzed the problems of the past housing supply policies and suggested improvement measures in the aspects of sustainable national land use planning and environmental conservation.
In terms of the national land use planning, as confirmed by the analyses of overseas cases and existing public housing development projects, the housing policy to supply housing through new development in undeveloped areas such as the Development Restriction Zones should be avoided in consideration of changes in social conditions such as the exhaustion of available land and decrease in population, and the new housing policy should be established to revitalize the old city center such as for urban regeneration. In addition, related legal systems will need to be revised to ensure that related ministries including the Ministry of Environment and environmental experts participate in the planning of urban development projects for the supply of public housing in undeveloped areas, so that they can take part in selecting project sites and establishing land use plans taking the local environment into consideration.
In terms of the environmental preservation, related legal and adminstration systems must be reorganized so that the public housing development plan establishment process and the environmental impact assessment process can become more closely linked. Based on this linkage, environmental problems and environmental impacts discussed in the planning process should be identified at the environmental impact assessment stage, and related reduction measures should be specifically identified. Related guidelines such as “Guidelines for Enhancing the Environmental Aspects of Urban Planning” will need to be revised based on the problems encountered in the recent urban development projects.
This study summarizes various problems arising from the planning and environmental impact assessment of large-scale public housing development projects that were promoted by the national policy, and is meaningful in that it suggested the linkage of national land use planning and environmental planning to improve the environmental quality in the establishment of housing supply policies for future housing stability. In the future, based on follow-up research related to this study, it is necessary to develop measures to improve the environmental quality through urban regeneration in housing supply, such as a measure to avoid infringement of the right to ancient lights, as well as institutional measures on the establishment of housing policy that takes the environmental capacity of the region into account.